These notes are a brief summary, in some passages almost telegraphic, of some of the aspects that will be treated in this course; Therefore, can not replace the reading of good manuals on the subject, some of which are cited in the bibliography. The basic purpose of these notes is, therefore, to state some of the problems that arise during the process of writing and publishing a document and to give some ideas on how they could be resolved. In addition, you can only really learn to write and publish the results of the research with your own experience, guided by the advice of more experienced researchers and by careful examination of the documents already published in the discipline.
1. The importance of communication in research: communication situations
1.1. How does research in a discipline progress?
As formulated, the question may seem too general, but a preliminary exploration of this issue can help us to better define the role of communication in the advancement of science.
We can say that the corpus of knowledge of a discipline is the result of an intersubjective, general and provisional agreement on certain concepts and on relationships between these concepts that allow solving some problems that have arisen a certain society. Ideally, these concepts and relationships form a coherent body, but are always open to reformulation, because new problems can arise that can not be solved with them. Normally, a discipline advances through the hypothetical approach of new concepts and new relationships that allow to advance in the solution of the new problems.
1.2. What is the role of communication in advancing a discipline?
If the knowledge of a discipline arises from a general agreement, the communication between those who construct this discipline or contribute to it is crucial to the construction of this agreement. On the other hand, communication is only possible through the use of a strongly codified language and notations and formalizations commonly accepted, given the variety of origin of people who engage in such discipline. In addition, the amount of information in each discipline makes it necessary to have strong standardized communication and documentation mechanisms, so that this information can be used efficiently.
Without this communication we would basically continue in the stone age, reproducing again and again the same advances (reinventing, as the topic says, the wheel).
1.3. In what types of documents do we find research results?
Here is a list (not exhaustive) of types of document in which we can find the results of research conducted around a particular discipline. Each type of document has a different utility and audience.
- The scientific articles in journals (printed on paper or electronic or published on the Internet):
- Original contributions, the most common and important, where the results of some complete research are presented.
- Short (“letters”), which are shorter than the previous ones and which usually have more specific, more preliminary or more urgent results.
- reviews ( reviews ), instead of containing original research cited, summary and unify the results of many recent articles on a particular aspect of the discipline.
- Comments – usually critical – to other articles already published in the journal
- Recent book reviews that may be of interest to readers of the journal
- Scientific articles published in the proceedings of conferences and academic meetings, associated to various types of contributions in these meetings.
- Invited lectures, usually one hour, given by the most important experts in the corresponding discipline, invited by the organizers of the congress.
- Short and long oral communications; In some academic meetings, the contributions accepted by the organizers from those presented to them are usually divided into long (typically about 30 minutes, including the later colloquium) and short (about 15 minutes).
- Poster communications: In some academic meetings, short communications are replaced by a poster session. In them, each author is placed next to a poster, mural or panel that summarizes his communication and explains it to those attending the congress who decide to visit him.
- The technical reports published by an academic institution, usually performed by authors of the same and typically before formally publishing them in any of the means mentioned above. Currently, these technical reports are usually offered on internet servers.
- The books
- The manuals with one or more authors
- The case books in which each chapter has different authors and are coordinated by one or more editors
- Collecting books previously published collections of articles on a given topic ( selected ).
1.4. How do we find the documents we need?
Let us imagine that a possible line of work has occurred to us and we have decided to carry out a more detailed investigation. How do we know what has already been done on the subject? How do we avoid repeating the work of others?
We can go to one or more newspaper libraries and examine those magazines that may have articles on the subject or those books that can treat it. The search in magazines can do it directly, which is tedious and inefficient, or using annual or volume indexes. We may be lucky that some of the journals are on CD-ROM or that their indexes are available online, so the search would be much more efficient. Before visiting the libraries, we can consult their catalogs (or even their computerized funds) online.
For some disciplines there are collections of abstracts or summaries. In them, you can search for documents by keywords, by author, etc.
There are also indexes such as the Social Science Citation Index or the Science Citation Index, CD-ROM collections (formerly full shelves of books) in which papers published in selected sources (“impact”, see below) Can be found by author, or by title words, etc. Other interesting information provided by SCI are lists of citations to published articles; So we can know who is asking us to know, for example, if someone has followed our work. Some universities have documentation centers that perform these searches on various databases for us.
The Internet presents many options, but not too organized: efficient use of available search engines is an art: some magazines publish their indexes; In other cases, individuals or institutions compile indexes of journals or bibliographic reference files on a particular topic. Some authors publish their works on the internet in addition to doing it in magazines and congresses, with which we can be lucky to obtain free copies of them.
When we investigated continuously on a topic is very important to devote some of our time to be up to date, regularly touring the sources that have so far helped us to locate relevant information and looking for new sources.
Once we know which are the articles that interest us, how do we get copies of them?
- If we are lucky, have a colleague of our center or are in magazines of our newspaper, or there is an electronic version on the internet;
- If they are in another newspaper library, there are ways to order copies for a small fee, either through our university or by contacting them directly
- There are public and private documentation centers that locate, copy and send the article (this usually comes out somewhat more expensive, on the order of one euro / dollar per page)
- We can ask one of its authors if we know their address (some universities have postcards specially designed for this purpose)
Knowing in each case what is the most appropriate method to obtain copies of an article is how to locate articles relevant to a topic, an art that is learned primarily from experience.
2. Structure of a research report: the IMRaD scheme
One of the most common ways of structuring scientific research reports is also applicable to similar documents from other academic disciplines. This is the so – called IMRAD scheme: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion, although other structures are also possible (Day 1991) . This scheme refers to the body of the document, but a document more parties exist:
- The title of the report
- The authors and their contact details (postal and electronic address, telephone, fax, etc.)
- The date it was done
- the abstract or brief summary of the work
- Optionally, one or more keywords that can guide the people who later classify the work
- If the document is long and structured, optionally an index of its contents
- The body of the report, with the IMRaD structure indicated above (see also below)
- The acknowledgments (they can be placed in other places, for example, like footnote of the title)
- The bibliographical references of the works cited in the text
2.1. How to list authors and their addresses
The first page of the report should include the names of all authors and the addresses (postal and electronic) of each of them, and any other contact information that may allow a reader of the report to contact them for any query .
One of the most sensitive aspects of the list of authors is the order in which they should appear, and sometimes who should be on the list.
There are several traditions regarding the order of the authors: in some disciplines the principal investigator (for example, the professor) is considered to be the first and then the youngest researchers (for example, the students). However, in other disciplines the opposite occurs: the last position in the list of authors is considered the main one. Finally, it is not uncommon to decide to avoid this problem by sorting the authors by drawing or alphabetically whenever a group produces a report. Another aspect that is considered important is the following: if the work is finally listed in a bibliographic database it is very possible that it must be searched or listed by the name of the first author.
With regard to who should be included in the list of authors, in some research groups, it is customary for the director of the group to automatically sign all articles that appear in it, even if he has not intervened effectively in the research that is presented . Ideally, a job should be signed only by those people who actually have been involved in the work and can respond from it.
2.2. How to write a summary ( abstract )
“The abstract should be considered as a mini version of the article” (Day 1991). Therefore, it is a good idea to preserve the IMRaD structure in it, describing the objectives of the study, the methodology used, the main results of the work and its fundamental conclusions. An abstract typically has a single paragraph and less than 250 words and should “allow readers to identify the core content of fast document and faithfully, in order to determine the relevance of it to their interests and therefore to decide whether they need Read in full “(definition of the American National Standards Institute).
The abstract is usually on the first page and is usually the first thing that is read from a job; So it is very important that it is well written.
2.3. How to write the introduction
Why is this problem important? What is the novelty of the solution we propose?
The introduction serves to make the readers understand the context in which the work originated. Therefore, it should contain a clear and precise description of the problem that has been addressed, explain its relevance, and briefly cite and summarize the work that defines the problem and describe previous solutions to contextualize the one proposed. It should explain why the methodology described has been chosen, indicate the main results and advance the most important conclusions.
The introduction is perhaps the most appropriate place to define the specialized terms and abbreviations to be used in the article. In addition, it is not a bad idea that the introduction ends with a paragraph that briefly outlines the organization of the work in sections.
It is crucial that the introduction make clear what the basic theme of the work is, because otherwise the readers may lose interest in it or be confused.
2.4. How to write the materials and methods section
How was the study done? Can it be reproduced? How could it be applied to another case?
Section materials and methods or methodology section is of paramount importance in our work, since one of the key properties of a good academic work is to be reproducible: the reader must understand the method used in such detail that allows you to apply it to Same or another problem. If the methodology is known because it has been published in a medium easily accessible to the reader, we can avoid describing it completely and giving the corresponding bibliographical reference.
It is not a bad idea to let a colleague read this section before publishing the article (Day 1991) because it can help us detect omissions due to the very fact that we knew the method perfectly when we did the study.
2.5. How to write the results section
What are the most important results of the work?
It is very possible that during our study we have collected numerous data (for example, from a survey) and we are tempted to include them all, but we should not do so. We must try by all means to group and analyze our data in a way that is representative rather than repetitive. This section should be well written, because the results are those that will endorse the conclusions and justify the usefulness of the work done.
If the results are extensive they can be presented graphically; This is always better than the tabular representation (tables or tables), although sometimes it is not possible. If you want to express percentages, perhaps a pie chart is ideal. If we want to indicate trends in the variation of some result with some variable, we can represent it in a graph with two axes.
2.6. How to write the discussion
If the reader asks this before the discussion (also called conclusion ), we help you understand the relevance of the results obtained by us; If asked after the discussion section, it is clear that we must rewrite it.
The discussion should explain the relationships, the trends, the possible generalizations of the observed results, while continuing to discuss those unexpected results that totally or partially invalidate some of the initial hypotheses of the work. It should put the results in relation to those of other works and indicate the possible applications (or theoretical implications) of our results.
3. Citation methods from other sources: format of citations and references
When in a scientific report you want to refer to other previously published works (for example, to avoid having to repeat all the details of a particular method or to contract the findings of this report with those of that work), they cite these works, Giving all the necessary information so that whoever reads the article can locate it correctly. For this, a system is used that has two distinct parts:
- the appointment itself (also called called ) in the body of the text should be short to not break the speech, and
- the bibliographic reference containing all information necessary to locate the job, and normally list at end of work so that we can find easily using the appointment or call.
There are several formats for citing and referring papers. Here they are briefly described two of them, the most widespread: the system author-year or Harvard and the system number .
3.1. System author-year or Harvard
In this system the appointment is made using the names (surnames) of the authors and the year of publication of the work. Here are some examples:
- “As the results of Tapalainen (1957) and Marks and Spencer (1968) prove, the student’s attitudes […]” (the quotation forms part of the phrase as a noun phrase)
- “The results of this work contrast with others previously published (Marks and Spencer 1968; Tapalainen 1957) in that […]” (the quotation does not form part of the sentence).
- “[…] Following the protocol Ramachandran et al. (1997) found that […]” (the article has too many authors to quote them all and added the Latin abbreviation et alii, “and others” ).
- “The effect of the methods of integration evaluation can never be underestimated (Szabó 1978: 225) …” (we want to cite a specific page, 225, of Szabó’s work).
- “The results of the surveys were analyzed using the methodology described by Zander (1977b)” (there is another reference to the same author and the same year, Zander (1977a): we use letters to distinguish them).
Bibliographical references are listed in alphabetical order of authors, and in case there are several works by the same authors, in chronological order. If, however, there are two works with the same authors and the same year, letters are used as indicated above. In all references are given first the authors (surnames, initials of the name) and then the year. The exact format of the references depends on the discipline or instructions given by a particular publisher or magazine and therefore may vary. Examples:
- Marks and Spencer G., A. (1968) “Ethnic attitudes towards mathematics” in Bergerd, A., ed. Attitudes, ethnicity, marginality (New Chester: Springley), p. 115-137.
- Mengfors, A. (1978) An introduction to research clasroom (New Chester: Springley)
- Mengfors, A., Zuiders, AWG, Horcajo, AM (1975) “Making sense of classroom surveys”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 56 : 4, 125-163.
- Ramachandran, VJ, Das, AJ, Venukrishnan, KP, Gophal, D. (1997) “A set of protocols for the evaluation of attitudes towards second language acquisition” in Proceedings of the 4th Conference of Educational Engineering India (Calcutta, February 2 5, 1997), vol. 2 P. 135-141.
- Szabó, Z. (1978) Learning barriers (Gondaz: University Press).
- Tapalainen, T. (1976) “Assessing the effect of gender in mathematics education”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 57 : 1, 115-118
- Zander, ZG (1977a) A guide to statistics for educational research practitioners, technical report, Department of Education, University of Gondaz, Gondaz, Ruztania, URL: http: //www.u-gondaz.rz/techreports/tr97001.pdf
- Zander, ZG (1977b) “Comments to:` Making sense of classroom surveys’ ” Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 58 : 3, 98.
The work of Marks and Spencer is a chapter of a book edited by A. Bergerd. The works of Mengfors (1978) and Szabó (1978) are manual; That of Mengfors et al. (1975) is an article in a magazine (the volume is indicated in bold, followed by the number and the pages); Zander’s (1997b) is a commentary on the latter published in the same magazine. The work of Zander (1977b) is a technical report of the University of Gondaz, accessible by Internet. The work of Ramachandran et al. (1997) is an article in the proceedings of a national congress (place, volume and pages are indicated).
3.2. Number system
The numeric system, as its name implies, uses numeric calls in the text. Here are some examples, parallel to those indicated for the previous method:
- “[…] as the results of Tapalainen  and Marks and Spencer  prove, student attitudes …” (names are quoted though not necessary)
- “The results of this work contrast with others previously published [1,2] in that […]” (the quotation is not part of the sentence).
- “[…] following the protocol described in , it was found that”
- “The effect of the methods of integration evaluation [6, p.225] …” (quote with page indication) can never be underestimated.
- “The results of the surveys were analyzed using alternative attitudinal methodology .”
References often have a different format and are numbered, either by order of appearance in the text or alphabetically. In the first case, the references cited in the previous section would be, more or less, as follows:
- T. Tapalainen: “Assessing the effect of gender in mathematics education”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 57 : 1, 115-118 (1976).
- G. Marks, A. Spencer: “Ethnic attitudes towards mathematics”, in A. Bergerd, ed. Attitudes, ethnicity, marginality (New Chester: Springley, 1968), p. 115-137.
- A. Mengfors: An introduction to research clasroom (New Chester: Springley, 1978)
- A. Mengfors, AWG Zuiders, AM Horcajo: “Making sense of classroom surveys”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 56 : 4, 125-163 (1975).
- Ramachandran VJ, AJ Das, KP Venukrishnan, D. Gophal: “A set of protocols for the evaluation of attitudes towards second language acquisition” in Proceedings of the 4th Conference of Educational Engineering India (Calcutta, February 2-5, 1997), vol . 2 P. 135-141.
- Z. Szabó: Learning barriers (Gondaz: University Press, 1978).
- ZG Zander: A guide to statistics for educational research practitioners, technical report, Department of Education, University of Gondaz, Gondaz, Ruztania (1977) URL: http: //www.u-gondaz.rz/techreports/tr97001.pdf
- ZG Zander: “Comments to:` Making sense of classroom surveys’ ” Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 58 : 3, 98 (1977).
3.3. Treatment of internet documents
It is becoming increasingly common for cited documents to be obtained through the internet. It is even possible that they can only be found on some internet server. In these cases, you use the URL ( Uniform Resource Locator , Uniform Resource Locator) address or reference document (additional or sole), since it was uniquely designed precisely to determine where you are. The names of the authors, the title of the document (which can be the one that appears in the window frame of our browser or the one found in the text itself) and the URL that we should type, should be given, whenever possible. To access the document directly. For example, in the author-year system,
- Skinniejk, K. (1998) “A survey of attitude evaluation methods” http://www.gondaz.ru/~skinniejk/survey.html
It is advisable that, as in the example, the URL appears in “typewriter letter”.
4. Some considerations regarding the style of research reports
One of the most difficult aspects of writing a research report is the style. This section illustrates the problems of style with two specific aspects, but the problems are much more numerous. Often, the Instructions for authors of a particular journal can help us solve some of the problems we arise style. For a more detailed study of the questions of style with references to other works on the subject, see Pérez Ortiz (1999).
4.1. Definitions and abbreviations
It is very important that the first time we use a specific abbreviation, symbol or term, we define it properly, usually in the introduction of the article:
- “[…] The average attitudinal response (RAM) is defined as […]”
- “[…] We denote as p the number of patterns observed […]”
- “[…] We will use the term reluctance to define the ratio of negative responses […]”
So we can use them without problems in the rest of the text:
- “Ethnic origin did not significantly affect the RAM […]”
- ” It was noted that p increased with social diversity of the district so that […]”
- “Surprisingly, the effect on reluctance was negligible.”
Note that the mathematical symbols and p are usually written in italics to stand out in the text.
4.2. ¿ I or us ? Passive or reflexive voice?
This is one of the classic problems presented when a report has a single author, and is always a topic of discussion. In this case, use us and the corresponding verb forms could give the impression of a majestic plural ( “we measure the attitudinal response”). More commonly, though, it is interpreted that we as an attempt to include in the discussion the reader (Eco 1991: 187). On the other hand, replace it in such cases by a first person singular I sound somewhat extravagant ( “I measured the attitudinal response”) and may suggest that the statement is subjective in nature when not this is desired. One possible solution may be the use of impersonal phrases are ( “attitudinal response was measured”) , or even the passive voice ( “attitudinal response was measured”), although abuse latter usually typically be an anglicized Quite alien to the genius of Romance languages like Spanish. The passive should only be used when another wording is incompatible with the emphasis that the object of the phrase (in this case, the “attitude response”) is intended to give.
Sometimes, to avoid using I in valuation opinion or phrases are used to locutions as “The author believes that …” or “… is the author opinion.” Some authors suggest that these circumlocutions are even worse than a simple “I think …”.
5. The process of publishing an article
5.1. How do we choose the magazine or congress?
When we believe that a report that we have written deserves to be published in some medium of wider dissemination as a journal or to be presented at a local or international congress of our discipline, one of the first questions that we are asked is: how do we choose The magazine or the congress?
There are numerous factors that we can take into account when choosing a magazine to publish our report. Here are some:
- The theme of the magazine: we must make sure that the theme of the magazine is appropriate for our article.
- The rate of acceptance of works: some magazines are very demanding and only accept a very small fraction of the work sent to them; This circumstance normally gives them prestige, since they are supposed to accept only works of high quality. But we refuse to risk the work involves waste time we could be using in the process of publication in another journal easy.
- The scope of circulation of the magazine: it is important to choose a magazine whose audience is appropriate for our work.
- The impact of the magazine: A magazine whose articles are much cited article has a high impact; The one whose articles go unnoticed has a low impact. Impact is normally measured as the number of citations received per article, for example, in the last 3 years. In science, the impacts of journals are known and published annually, and are used to assess the quality of articles. In the social sciences, the impact is beginning to be quantified only very recently.
- The average time that passes from when we send the article to the magazine until it is published. There are magazines whose revision and editing process is more agile than others. We may prefer a faster magazine even if it is not so prestigious.
In the case of a congress or scientific meeting, prestige, thematic and the audience are factors to be taken into account, but also must be taken into account others, such as:
- The cost of registration, travel and accommodation.
- The time it takes for the minutes to appear after the congress (in social and human sciences it is not strange that more than a year passes).
5.2. Preparation of article format: instructions for authors
When we want to send an article to a magazine or to a scientific meeting we have to adhere to the technical specifications and the deadlines required by them.
Magazines often publish periodically some instructions for authors (typically at the beginning or end of each volume) should be followed carefully: in them the article format (language, font sizes, citation style, format the pages indicated, Address to which the manuscript should be sent, etc.).
Scientific meetings are published a call or call for papers in which specifies how and when to submit a contribution to be evaluated by the organizing committee that will decide whether or not it is accepted. Normally a specified deadline or deadline beyond which further contributions are not accepted.
5.3. Item Shipment
Typically, magazines and scientific meetings require you to send an original and one or more copies of the manuscript, accompanied by a letter ( cover letter ); for example,
Dear Mr. González:
Attached, I am sending you three copies of the manuscript "Methods of Attitudinal Evaluation in Language Teaching", which I have written in collaboration with Amelia Vázquez and Itziar Ibiñagabeitia, to be considered for publication in the Ibero-American Journal of Educational Engineering.
Waiting for your news,
Recently, some magazines or congresses request a copy of the article in some computer support to avoid composing it completely again (there are magazines and scientific meetings that even allow the electronic submission of manuscripts completely).
The author must ensure that he / she sends the manuscript to the correct address and the correct editor if the journal has several (this information is found in the authors instructions). If surface or air mail is considered too slow, you can send the package (always well wrapped to avoid loss or damage) using a fast messenger service.
5.4. The review process
The review process varies markedly from one journal to another or from one congress to the next.
In some journals or academic meetings, the editor assigns reviewers (usually anonymous to authors) to each article and uses their comments to guide their decision about accepting the article; In other cases, an editorial board makes the corresponding decisions. The publisher may decide
- accept directly as it is;
- accept on condition that made in the manuscript the changes suggested by the reviewers or the editorial board ( of which the authors are reported); These modifications may be minor or substantial;
- reject without appeal (usually enclosing the reports have motivated the decision).
In the second case (uncommon in the case of academic meetings), authors should forward the article, including a letter explaining the modifications made in response to the reviewers’ suggestions, and, if any of these Suggestions have not been followed, explain the reasons.
5.5. Correction of proofs of printing
Many magazines prepare some proofs (also called, before final publication, galley proofs ) in which you see how will the article pages in the magazine, so that the authors make corrections they deem appropriate (eg , The technical staff of the journal may have made typographical errors that authors should detect and correct). To indicate standard corrections marks (used proofreader’s marks or proofreader marks) in both the text and in the margins. By the way, the magazine transfers the responsibility of typographical errors to authors in this way.
6. Oral presentation of a research report
When we present a report at a scientific meeting, the communication is basically oral in nature. This section deals with two basic types of oral presentation: the conference with transparencies and the poster (in social and human sciences it is not surprising that the lecture is read more or less verbatim without the aid of visual means, but this type of communication does not Will be discussed here).
6.1. The talk with transparencies
One of the most visual media are used transparencies (English viewgraphs, transparencies or slides ), sheets of clear plastic on which can be written with special markers or that can be used in the laser printer or photocopier. These slides are placed on an overhead projector (in English overhead projector or OHP) that sends the image to a screen like those used in slide shows. Hier geht es zur Webseite.
Transparencies are usually used to represent (more graphic than textual) the most important aspects of the talk, but they are not meant to be read. They serve to make both the speaker and the audience more easily follow the flow of the conference, especially if it is performed in a language other than the native speaker; Therefore, contain graphs, diagrams, keywords, short phrases. It is very difficult to fully explain a job in ten or twenty minutes; Therefore, we may have to see the transparencies as advertising material that persuades the audience to be interested in our work and decides to read it when the minutes are published.
Some tips for talks with transparencies:
- Transparencies should contain little text: sometimes 1-6-6 is suggested: one idea, six lines and six words per line at most;
- We should prepare the talk well, rehearse it if possible to measure times and improve the transparency, and taking into account what we want the reaction of the audience after listening to us;
- We must familiarize ourselves with the details of the specific room in which we will give our conference: the projector, the screen, the pointer, the wireless microphone if there is, etc.
- a type of large and legible distance should be used, preferably sans serif (eg. Helvetica), such as those used in the posters of the railway and road signs, designed to be read and understood in tenths second. Fonts with serifs (. Eg Roman) are not well when enlarged because they are not intended for this purpose, but to clearly mark the structure of the lines in dense texts like a book;
- If we need to gradually reveal the contents of a transparency by the needs of the speech, it is better to use several transparencies in which new lines are appearing to cover with opaque papers the parts that we do not want to be seen yet: it is difficult to put them well and it is not uncommon That fall at the least
- If we have to present quantitative information, we must think of using graphs instead of tables; It is impossible to read a table in the typical time in which a transparency appears on the screen (on the order of one minute);
- To point to the contents of a transparency you can use the tip of a pen on the overhead projector, a pointer, the arms or a laser specially designed for this purpose, but always without preventing attendees from seeing the transparency completely and giving their backs the minimum Possible time (we should not impart the talk to the projector or the screen, but our audience, maintaining eye contact successively with as many listeners as possible to convey the feeling that we impart to each one of them);
- The first transparency is a title page like that of an article: it must contain the title, the authors and at least the name of the institution for which they work.
6.2.The poster or mural
If in the case of a talk with transparencies, which occurs when the audience is already in the room and ready to listen to the speaker, the transparencies could be considered as advertising material, this is even more true in the case of the poster, in which The audience is not assured and we must get their attention when passing in front of him. Therefore, the title should be attractive and occupy a significant fraction of the area assigned to our mural.
The language of a poster is not, therefore, too different from that of transparencies, although the poster may include finer details of our work, since the permanence of the audience depends only on its interest and our ability to maintain your attention.
The poster also gives the possibility of a more interactive and informal discussion of our work with other experts in the area.
Normally the poster is read in our presence, but we must not forget that it is possible that it is also read in our absence by some person lagging because it has not yet been withdrawn; Even in this case you must attract and keep your attention so that our work has the maximum diffusion.