How are research papers written and published with projctor?

These notes are a brief summary, in some passages almost telegraphic, of some of the aspects that will be treated in this course; Therefore, can not replace the reading of good manuals on the subject, some of which are cited in the bibliography. The basic purpose of these notes is, therefore, to state some of the problems that arise during the process of writing and publishing a document and to give some ideas on how they could be resolved. In addition, you can only really learn to write and publish the results of the research with your own experience, guided by the advice of more experienced researchers and by careful examination of the documents already published in the discipline.

1. The importance of communication in research: communication situations

1.1. How does research in a discipline progress?

As formulated, the question may seem too general, but a preliminary exploration of this issue can help us to better define the role of communication in the advancement of science.

We can say that the corpus of knowledge of a discipline is the result of an intersubjective, general and provisional agreement on certain concepts and on relationships between these concepts that allow solving some problems that have arisen a certain society. Ideally, these concepts and relationships form a coherent body, but are always open to reformulation, because new problems can arise that can not be solved with them. Normally, a discipline advances through the hypothetical approach of new concepts and new relationships that allow to advance in the solution of the new problems.

1.2. What is the role of communication in advancing a discipline?

If the knowledge of a discipline arises from a general agreement, the communication between those who construct this discipline or contribute to it is crucial to the construction of this agreement. On the other hand, communication is only possible through the use of a strongly codified language and notations and formalizations commonly accepted, given the variety of origin of people who engage in such discipline. In addition, the amount of information in each discipline makes it necessary to have strong standardized communication and documentation mechanisms, so that this information can be used efficiently.

Without this communication we would basically continue in the stone age, reproducing again and again the same advances (reinventing, as the topic says, the wheel).

1.3. In what types of documents do we find research results?

Here is a list (not exhaustive) of types of document in which we can find the results of research conducted around a particular discipline. Each type of document has a different utility and audience.

  1. The scientific articles in journals (printed on paper or electronic or published on the Internet):
    1. Original contributions, the most common and important, where the results of some complete research are presented.
    2. Short (“letters”), which are shorter than the previous ones and which usually have more specific, more preliminary or more urgent results.
    3. reviews ( reviews ), instead of containing original research cited, summary and unify the results of many recent articles on a particular aspect of the discipline.
    4. Comments – usually critical – to other articles already published in the journal
    5. Recent book reviews that may be of interest to readers of the journal
  2. Scientific articles published in the proceedings of conferences and academic meetings, associated to various types of contributions in these meetings.
    1. Invited lectures, usually one hour, given by the most important experts in the corresponding discipline, invited by the organizers of the congress.
    2. Short and long oral communications; In some academic meetings, the contributions accepted by the organizers from those presented to them are usually divided into long (typically about 30 minutes, including the later colloquium) and short (about 15 minutes).
    3. Poster communications: In some academic meetings, short communications are replaced by a poster session. In them, each author is placed next to a poster, mural or panel that summarizes his communication and explains it to those attending the congress who decide to visit him.
  3. The technical reports published by an academic institution, usually performed by authors of the same and typically before formally publishing them in any of the means mentioned above. Currently, these technical reports are usually offered on internet servers.
  4. The books
    1. The manuals with one or more authors
    2. The case books in which each chapter has different authors and are coordinated by one or more editors
    3. Collecting books previously published collections of articles on a given topic ( selected ).

1.4. How do we find the documents we need?

Let us imagine that a possible line of work has occurred to us and we have decided to carry out a more detailed investigation. How do we know what has already been done on the subject? How do we avoid repeating the work of others?

We can go to one or more newspaper libraries and examine those magazines that may have articles on the subject or those books that can treat it. The search in magazines can do it directly, which is tedious and inefficient, or using annual or volume indexes. We may be lucky that some of the journals are on CD-ROM or that their indexes are available online, so the search would be much more efficient. Before visiting the libraries, we can consult their catalogs (or even their computerized funds) online.

For some disciplines there are collections of abstracts or summaries. In them, you can search for documents by keywords, by author, etc.

There are also indexes such as the Social Science Citation Index or the Science Citation Index, CD-ROM collections (formerly full shelves of books) in which papers published in selected sources (“impact”, see below) Can be found by author, or by title words, etc. Other interesting information provided by SCI are lists of citations to published articles; So we can know who is asking us to know, for example, if someone has followed our work. Some universities have documentation centers that perform these searches on various databases for us.

The Internet presents many options, but not too organized: efficient use of available search engines is an art: some magazines publish their indexes; In other cases, individuals or institutions compile indexes of journals or bibliographic reference files on a particular topic. Some authors publish their works on the internet in addition to doing it in magazines and congresses, with which we can be lucky to obtain free copies of them.

When we investigated continuously on a topic is very important to devote some of our time to be up to date, regularly touring the sources that have so far helped us to locate relevant information and looking for new sources.

Once we know which are the articles that interest us, how do we get copies of them?

  • If we are lucky, have a colleague of our center or are in magazines of our newspaper, or there is an electronic version on the internet;
  • If they are in another newspaper library, there are ways to order copies for a small fee, either through our university or by contacting them directly
  • There are public and private documentation centers that locate, copy and send the article (this usually comes out somewhat more expensive, on the order of one euro / dollar per page)
  • We can ask one of its authors if we know their address (some universities have postcards specially designed for this purpose)

Knowing in each case what is the most appropriate method to obtain copies of an article is how to locate articles relevant to a topic, an art that is learned primarily from experience.

2. Structure of a research report: the IMRaD scheme

One of the most common ways of structuring scientific research reports is also applicable to similar documents from other academic disciplines. This is the so – called IMRAD scheme: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion, although other structures are also possible (Day 1991) . This scheme refers to the body of the document, but a document more parties exist:

  • The title of the report
  • The authors and their contact details (postal and electronic address, telephone, fax, etc.)
  • The date it was done
  • the abstract or brief summary of the work
  • Optionally, one or more keywords that can guide the people who later classify the work
  • If the document is long and structured, optionally an index of its contents
  • The body of the report, with the IMRaD structure indicated above (see also below)
  • The acknowledgments (they can be placed in other places, for example, like footnote of the title)
  • The bibliographical references of the works cited in the text

2.1. How to list authors and their addresses

The first page of the report should include the names of all authors and the addresses (postal and electronic) of each of them, and any other contact information that may allow a reader of the report to contact them for any query .

One of the most sensitive aspects of the list of authors is the order in which they should appear, and sometimes who should be on the list.

There are several traditions regarding the order of the authors: in some disciplines the principal investigator (for example, the professor) is considered to be the first and then the youngest researchers (for example, the students). However, in other disciplines the opposite occurs: the last position in the list of authors is considered the main one. Finally, it is not uncommon to decide to avoid this problem by sorting the authors by drawing or alphabetically whenever a group produces a report. Another aspect that is considered important is the following: if the work is finally listed in a bibliographic database it is very possible that it must be searched or listed by the name of the first author.

With regard to who should be included in the list of authors, in some research groups, it is customary for the director of the group to automatically sign all articles that appear in it, even if he has not intervened effectively in the research that is presented . Ideally, a job should be signed only by those people who actually have been involved in the work and can respond from it.

2.2. How to write a summary ( abstract )

“The abstract should be considered as a mini version of the article” (Day 1991). Therefore, it is a good idea to preserve the IMRaD structure in it, describing the objectives of the study, the methodology used, the main results of the work and its fundamental conclusions. An abstract typically has a single paragraph and less than 250 words and should “allow readers to identify the core content of fast document and faithfully, in order to determine the relevance of it to their interests and therefore to decide whether they need Read in full “(definition of the American National Standards Institute).

The abstract is usually on the first page and is usually the first thing that is read from a job; So it is very important that it is well written.

2.3. How to write the introduction

Why is this problem important? What is the novelty of the solution we propose?

The introduction serves to make the readers understand the context in which the work originated. Therefore, it should contain a clear and precise description of the problem that has been addressed, explain its relevance, and briefly cite and summarize the work that defines the problem and describe previous solutions to contextualize the one proposed. It should explain why the methodology described has been chosen, indicate the main results and advance the most important conclusions.

The introduction is perhaps the most appropriate place to define the specialized terms and abbreviations to be used in the article. In addition, it is not a bad idea that the introduction ends with a paragraph that briefly outlines the organization of the work in sections.

It is crucial that the introduction make clear what the basic theme of the work is, because otherwise the readers may lose interest in it or be confused.

2.4. How to write the materials and methods section

How was the study done? Can it be reproduced? How could it be applied to another case?

Section materials and methods or methodology section is of paramount importance in our work, since one of the key properties of a good academic work is to be reproducible: the reader must understand the method used in such detail that allows you to apply it to Same or another problem. If the methodology is known because it has been published in a medium easily accessible to the reader, we can avoid describing it completely and giving the corresponding bibliographical reference.

It is not a bad idea to let a colleague read this section before publishing the article (Day 1991) because it can help us detect omissions due to the very fact that we knew the method perfectly when we did the study.

2.5. How to write the results section

What are the most important results of the work?

It is very possible that during our study we have collected numerous data (for example, from a survey) and we are tempted to include them all, but we should not do so. We must try by all means to group and analyze our data in a way that is representative rather than repetitive. This section should be well written, because the results are those that will endorse the conclusions and justify the usefulness of the work done.

If the results are extensive they can be presented graphically; This is always better than the tabular representation (tables or tables), although sometimes it is not possible. If you want to express percentages, perhaps a pie chart is ideal. If we want to indicate trends in the variation of some result with some variable, we can represent it in a graph with two axes.

2.6. How to write the discussion

And that?

If the reader asks this before the discussion (also called conclusion ), we help you understand the relevance of the results obtained by us; If asked after the discussion section, it is clear that we must rewrite it.

The discussion should explain the relationships, the trends, the possible generalizations of the observed results, while continuing to discuss those unexpected results that totally or partially invalidate some of the initial hypotheses of the work. It should put the results in relation to those of other works and indicate the possible applications (or theoretical implications) of our results.

3. Citation methods from other sources: format of citations and references

When in a scientific report you want to refer to other previously published works (for example, to avoid having to repeat all the details of a particular method or to contract the findings of this report with those of that work), they cite these works, Giving all the necessary information so that whoever reads the article can locate it correctly. For this, a system is used that has two distinct parts:

  • the appointment itself (also called called ) in the body of the text should be short to not break the speech, and
  • the bibliographic reference containing all information necessary to locate the job, and normally list at end of work so that we can find easily using the appointment or call.

There are several formats for citing and referring papers. Here they are briefly described two of them, the most widespread: the system author-year or Harvard and the system number .

3.1. System author-year or Harvard

In this system the appointment is made using the names (surnames) of the authors and the year of publication of the work. Here are some examples:

  • “As the results of Tapalainen (1957) and Marks and Spencer (1968) prove, the student’s attitudes […]” (the quotation forms part of the phrase as a noun phrase)
  • “The results of this work contrast with others previously published (Marks and Spencer 1968; Tapalainen 1957) in that […]” (the quotation does not form part of the sentence).
  • “[…] Following the protocol Ramachandran et al. (1997) found that […]” (the article has too many authors to quote them all and added the Latin abbreviation et alii, “and others” ).
  • “The effect of the methods of integration evaluation can never be underestimated (Szabó 1978: 225) …” (we want to cite a specific page, 225, of Szabó’s work).
  • “The results of the surveys were analyzed using the methodology described by Zander (1977b)” (there is another reference to the same author and the same year, Zander (1977a): we use letters to distinguish them).

Bibliographical references are listed in alphabetical order of authors, and in case there are several works by the same authors, in chronological order. If, however, there are two works with the same authors and the same year, letters are used as indicated above. In all references are given first the authors (surnames, initials of the name) and then the year. The exact format of the references depends on the discipline or instructions given by a particular publisher or magazine and therefore may vary. Examples:

  • Marks and Spencer G., A. (1968) “Ethnic attitudes towards mathematics” in Bergerd, A., ed. Attitudes, ethnicity, marginality (New Chester: Springley), p. 115-137.
  • Mengfors, A. (1978) An introduction to research clasroom (New Chester: Springley)
  • Mengfors, A., Zuiders, AWG, Horcajo, AM (1975) “Making sense of classroom surveys”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 56 : 4, 125-163.
  • Ramachandran, VJ, Das, AJ, Venukrishnan, KP, Gophal, D. (1997) “A set of protocols for the evaluation of attitudes towards second language acquisition” in Proceedings of the 4th Conference of Educational Engineering India (Calcutta, February 2 5, 1997), vol. 2 P. 135-141.
  • Szabó, Z. (1978) Learning barriers (Gondaz: University Press).
  • Tapalainen, T. (1976) “Assessing the effect of gender in mathematics education”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 57 : 1, 115-118
  • Zander, ZG (1977a) A guide to statistics for educational research practitioners, technical report, Department of Education, University of Gondaz, Gondaz, Ruztania, URL: http: //www.u-gondaz.rz/techreports/tr97001.pdf
  • Zander, ZG (1977b) “Comments to:` Making sense of classroom surveys’ ” Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 58 : 3, 98.

The work of Marks and Spencer is a chapter of a book edited by A. Bergerd. The works of Mengfors (1978) and Szabó (1978) are manual; That of Mengfors et al. (1975) is an article in a magazine (the volume is indicated in bold, followed by the number and the pages); Zander’s (1997b) is a commentary on the latter published in the same magazine. The work of Zander (1977b) is a technical report of the University of Gondaz, accessible by Internet. The work of Ramachandran et al. (1997) is an article in the proceedings of a national congress (place, volume and pages are indicated).

3.2. Number system

The numeric system, as its name implies, uses numeric calls in the text. Here are some examples, parallel to those indicated for the previous method:

  • “[…] as the results of Tapalainen [1] and Marks and Spencer [2] prove, student attitudes …” (names are quoted though not necessary)
  • “The results of this work contrast with others previously published [1,2] in that […]” (the quotation is not part of the sentence).
  • “[…] following the protocol described in [5], it was found that”
  • “The effect of the methods of integration evaluation [6, p.225] …” (quote with page indication) can never be underestimated.
  • “The results of the surveys were analyzed using alternative attitudinal methodology [8].”

References often have a different format and are numbered, either by order of appearance in the text or alphabetically. In the first case, the references cited in the previous section would be, more or less, as follows:

  1. T. Tapalainen: “Assessing the effect of gender in mathematics education”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 57 : 1, 115-118 (1976).
  2. G. Marks, A. Spencer: “Ethnic attitudes towards mathematics”, in A. Bergerd, ed. Attitudes, ethnicity, marginality (New Chester: Springley, 1968), p. 115-137.
  3. A. Mengfors: An introduction to research clasroom (New Chester: Springley, 1978)
  4. A. Mengfors, AWG Zuiders, AM Horcajo: “Making sense of classroom surveys”, Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 56 : 4, 125-163 (1975).
  5. Ramachandran VJ, AJ Das, KP Venukrishnan, D. Gophal: “A set of protocols for the evaluation of attitudes towards second language acquisition” in Proceedings of the 4th Conference of Educational Engineering India (Calcutta, February 2-5, 1997), vol . 2 P. 135-141.
  6. Z. Szabó: Learning barriers (Gondaz: University Press, 1978).
  7. ZG Zander: A guide to statistics for educational research practitioners, technical report, Department of Education, University of Gondaz, Gondaz, Ruztania (1977) URL: http: //www.u-gondaz.rz/techreports/tr97001.pdf
  8. ZG Zander: “Comments to:` Making sense of classroom surveys’ ” Ruztanian Journal of Educational Research 58 : 3, 98 (1977).

3.3. Treatment of internet documents

It is becoming increasingly common for cited documents to be obtained through the internet. It is even possible that they can only be found on some internet server. In these cases, you use the URL ( Uniform Resource Locator , Uniform Resource Locator) address or reference document (additional or sole), since it was uniquely designed precisely to determine where you are. The names of the authors, the title of the document (which can be the one that appears in the window frame of our browser or the one found in the text itself) and the URL that we should type, should be given, whenever possible. To access the document directly. For example, in the author-year system,

  • Skinniejk, K. (1998) “A survey of attitude evaluation methods”

It is advisable that, as in the example, the URL appears in “typewriter letter”.

4. Some considerations regarding the style of research reports

One of the most difficult aspects of writing a research report is the style. This section illustrates the problems of style with two specific aspects, but the problems are much more numerous. Often, the Instructions for authors of a particular journal can help us solve some of the problems we arise style. For a more detailed study of the questions of style with references to other works on the subject, see Pérez Ortiz (1999).

4.1. Definitions and abbreviations

It is very important that the first time we use a specific abbreviation, symbol or term, we define it properly, usually in the introduction of the article:

  • “[…] The average attitudinal response (RAM) is defined as […]”
  • “[…] We denote as p the number of patterns observed […]”
  • “[…] We will use the term reluctance to define the ratio of negative responses […]”

So we can use them without problems in the rest of the text:

  • “Ethnic origin did not significantly affect the RAM […]”
  • ” It was noted that p increased with social diversity of the district so that […]”
  • “Surprisingly, the effect on reluctance was negligible.”

Note that the mathematical symbols and p are usually written in italics to stand out in the text.

4.2. ¿ I or us ? Passive or reflexive voice?

This is one of the classic problems presented when a report has a single author, and is always a topic of discussion. In this case, use us  and the corresponding verb forms could give the impression of a majestic plural ( “we measure the attitudinal response”). More commonly, though, it is interpreted that we as an attempt to include in the discussion the reader (Eco 1991: 187). On the other hand, replace it in such cases by a first person singular I sound somewhat extravagant ( “I measured the attitudinal response”) and may suggest that the statement is subjective in nature when not this is desired. One possible solution may be the use of impersonal phrases are ( “attitudinal response was measured”) ,   or even the passive voice ( “attitudinal response was measured”), although abuse latter usually typically be an anglicized Quite alien to the genius of Romance languages ​​like Spanish. The passive should only be used when another wording is incompatible with the emphasis that the object of the phrase (in this case, the “attitude response”) is intended to give.

Sometimes, to avoid using I in valuation opinion or phrases are used to locutions as “The author believes that …” or “… is the author opinion.” Some authors suggest that these circumlocutions are even worse than a simple “I think …”.

5. The process of publishing an article

5.1. How do we choose the magazine or congress?

When we believe that a report that we have written deserves to be published in some medium of wider dissemination as a journal or to be presented at a local or international congress of our discipline, one of the first questions that we are asked is: how do we choose The magazine or the congress?

There are numerous factors that we can take into account when choosing a magazine to publish our report. Here are some:

  • The theme of the magazine: we must make sure that the theme of the magazine is appropriate for our article.
  • The rate of acceptance of works: some magazines are very demanding and only accept a very small fraction of the work sent to them; This circumstance normally gives them prestige, since they are supposed to accept only works of high quality. But we refuse to risk the work involves waste time we could be using in the process of publication in another journal easy.
  • The scope of circulation of the magazine: it is important to choose a magazine whose audience is appropriate for our work.
  • The impact of the magazine: A magazine whose articles are much cited article has a high impact; The one whose articles go unnoticed has a low impact. Impact is normally measured as the number of citations received per article, for example, in the last 3 years. In science, the impacts of journals are known and published annually, and are used to assess the quality of articles. In the social sciences, the impact is beginning to be quantified only very recently.
  • The average time that passes from when we send the article to the magazine until it is published. There are magazines whose revision and editing process is more agile than others. We may prefer a faster magazine even if it is not so prestigious.

In the case of a congress or scientific meeting, prestige, thematic and the audience are factors to be taken into account, but also must be taken into account others, such as:

  • The cost of registration, travel and accommodation.
  • The time it takes for the minutes to appear after the congress (in social and human sciences it is not strange that more than a year passes).

5.2. Preparation of article format: instructions for authors

When we want to send an article to a magazine or to a scientific meeting we have to adhere to the technical specifications and the deadlines required by them.

Magazines often publish periodically some instructions for authors (typically at the beginning or end of each volume) should be followed carefully: in them the article format (language, font sizes, citation style, format the pages indicated, Address to which the manuscript should be sent, etc.).

Scientific meetings are published a call or call for papers in which specifies how and when to submit a contribution to be evaluated by the organizing committee that will decide whether or not it is accepted. Normally a specified deadline or deadline beyond which further contributions are not accepted.

5.3. Item Shipment

Typically, magazines and scientific meetings require you to send an original and one or more copies of the manuscript, accompanied by a letter ( cover letter ); for example,

Dear Mr. González:

Attached, I am sending you three copies of the manuscript "Methods of Attitudinal Evaluation in Language Teaching", which I have written in collaboration with Amelia Vázquez and Itziar Ibiñagabeitia, to be considered for publication in the Ibero-American Journal of Educational Engineering.

Waiting for your news,

Jordi Garolera

Recently, some magazines or congresses request a copy of the article in some computer support to avoid composing it completely again (there are magazines and scientific meetings that even allow the electronic submission of manuscripts completely).

The author must ensure that he / she sends the manuscript to the correct address and the correct editor if the journal has several (this information is found in the authors instructions). If surface or air mail is considered too slow, you can send the package (always well wrapped to avoid loss or damage) using a fast messenger service.

5.4. The review process

The review process varies markedly from one journal to another or from one congress to the next.

In some journals or academic meetings, the editor assigns reviewers (usually anonymous to authors) to each article and uses their comments to guide their decision about accepting the article; In other cases, an editorial board makes the corresponding decisions. The publisher may decide

  • accept   directly as it is;
  • accept on condition that made in the manuscript the changes suggested by the reviewers or the editorial board ( of which the authors are reported); These modifications may be minor or substantial;
  • reject without appeal (usually enclosing the reports have motivated the decision).

In the second case (uncommon in the case of academic meetings), authors should forward the article, including a letter explaining the modifications made in response to the reviewers’ suggestions, and, if any of these Suggestions have not been followed, explain the reasons.

5.5. Correction of proofs of printing

Many magazines prepare some proofs (also called, before final publication, galley proofs ) in which you see how will the article pages in the magazine, so that the authors make corrections they deem appropriate (eg , The technical staff of the journal may have made typographical errors that authors should detect and correct). To indicate standard corrections marks (used proofreader’s marks or proofreader marks) in both the text and in the margins. By the way, the magazine transfers the responsibility of typographical errors to authors in this way.

6. Oral presentation of a research report

When we present a report at a scientific meeting, the communication is basically oral in nature. This section deals with two basic types of oral presentation: the conference with transparencies and the poster (in social and human sciences it is not surprising that the lecture is read more or less verbatim without the aid of visual means, but this type of communication does not Will be discussed here).

6.1. The talk with transparencies

One of the most visual media are used transparencies (English viewgraphs, transparencies or slides ), sheets of clear plastic on which can be written with special markers or that can be used in the laser printer or photocopier. These slides are placed on an overhead projector (in English overhead projector  or OHP) that sends the image to a screen like those used in slide shows. Hier geht es zur Webseite.

Transparencies are usually used to represent (more graphic than textual) the most important aspects of the talk, but they are not meant to be read. They serve to make both the speaker and the audience more easily follow the flow of the conference, especially if it is performed in a language other than the native speaker; Therefore, contain graphs, diagrams, keywords, short phrases. It is very difficult to fully explain a job in ten or twenty minutes; Therefore, we may have to see the transparencies as advertising material that persuades the audience to be interested in our work and decides to read it when the minutes are published.

Some tips for talks with transparencies:

  • Transparencies should contain little text: sometimes 1-6-6 is suggested: one idea, six lines and six words per line at most;
  • We should prepare the talk well, rehearse it if possible to measure times and improve the transparency, and taking into account what we want the reaction of the audience after listening to us;
  • We must familiarize ourselves with the details of the specific room in which we will give our conference: the projector, the screen, the pointer, the wireless microphone if there is, etc.
  • a type of large and legible distance should be used, preferably sans serif (eg. Helvetica), such as those used in the posters of the railway and road signs, designed to be read and understood in tenths second. Fonts with serifs  (. Eg Roman) are not well when enlarged because they are not intended for this purpose, but to clearly mark the structure of the lines in dense texts like a book;
  • If we need to gradually reveal the contents of a transparency by the needs of the speech, it is better to use several transparencies in which new lines are appearing to cover with opaque papers the parts that we do not want to be seen yet: it is difficult to put them well and it is not uncommon That fall at the least
  • If we have to present quantitative information, we must think of using graphs instead of tables; It is impossible to read a table in the typical time in which a transparency appears on the screen (on the order of one minute);
  • To point to the contents of a transparency you can use the tip of a pen on the overhead projector, a pointer, the arms or a laser specially designed for this purpose, but always without preventing attendees from seeing the transparency completely and giving their backs the minimum Possible time (we should not impart the talk to the projector or the screen, but our audience, maintaining eye contact successively with as many listeners as possible to convey the feeling that we impart to each one of them);
  • The first transparency is a title page like that of an article: it must contain the title, the authors and at least the name of the institution for which they work.

6.2.The poster or mural

If in the case of a talk with transparencies, which occurs when the audience is already in the room and ready to listen to the speaker, the transparencies could be considered as advertising material, this is even more true in the case of the poster, in which The audience is not assured and we must get their attention when passing in front of him. Therefore, the title should be attractive and occupy a significant fraction of the area assigned to our mural.

The language of a poster is not, therefore, too different from that of transparencies, although the poster may include finer details of our work, since the permanence of the audience depends only on its interest and our ability to maintain your attention.

The poster also gives the possibility of a more interactive and informal discussion of our work with other experts in the area.

Normally the poster is read in our presence, but we must not forget that it is possible that it is also read in our absence by some person lagging because it has not yet been withdrawn; Even in this case you must attract and keep your attention so that our work has the maximum diffusion.

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Currently in Costa Rica there are several companies that distribute coffee machine rental for offices which make more efficient the preparation especially of gourmet coffee like Expresso, Capuccino and Late, among others.

Minimum consumption
Some companies like Nescafé and Coffee Bardu prefer to put the machine to the customer for a minimum consumption of coffee. To Nescafé business is profitable with a minimum consumption of 100 cups a day, while for Café Bardu it is with 50 cups.
Nescafe, in its Commercial Canal places machines in restaurants especially fast food, because in this case ?? businesses need service efficiency ?? said Antonio Barzuna, General Manager of the company.
The cafes that are prepared are made up and ready ingredients, depending on the option the client requests, are mixed together to give the final product.
However, in the case of Café Bardu, although they have the same working system, the final product is based onfresh ground coffee and other ingredients, according to choose the person. The issue is ?? promote your fresh coffee through the machine, which ensures a good taste ??, said Manuel Rodriguez, General Manager of Café Bardu.
The truth is that this system is profitable in places of high traffic of people ?? ??, because the quality and cost of coffee is standardized.
Do you rent them or buy?
?? If there is a consumption of about 100 cups or more and there is good control over the sale is better to rent, as the machine wears out faster ?? said Alexander Sanchez, General Manager of Café Rey. It further recommends that if consumption is less than 100 cups is the best buy as it deteriorates less and restaurateur does not care to sell a specific amount to make the business profitable.
However, for Christian Charpentier, President of Commercial Capresso ?? the best system is the leasing, as the user forgets machine investment for repairs and every two or three years will change the machine, which willalways have the ?? art technology.
It all depends on the needs and conditions of the user. TO


Whether you buy or rent a coffee machine there are certain tips that experts give to always offer coffee height:
1. Avoid leaving the filter coffee percolator.
2. Wash the filter with hot water, so that the next coffee will stay warm and not warm.
3. Always use good quality coffee 100% pure.
4. If the machine has mill, use coffee beans, so that the result is a fresh ground and fresh coffee.
5. Use the machine according to the instructions and thoroughly clean it, as instructed suppliers to coffee always maintain excellent quality and the machine is kept in good condition.

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How to learn any language in months from author

The best ideas are protruding from the rest, but if the ideas do not materialize does not change the world. Just as pointed in ‘The  Steps of Success’ : what are the actions that make the change.

During my experience como aprender ingles em um mes, I noticed that the same mistakes are systematically repeated, it was this that led me to invest a big part of my life researching teaching methods. For more than thirteen years I sought to create a more efficient and effective method: the Theory of Belts , focused exclusively on the results.

This theory summarizes what I believe are the keys needed to learn a language and get it done in months, which I explained in the V edition of Mentes Brillantes , an event organized by Creative Being at the Teatro Circo Price in Madrid.

I always like to illustrate the theory with the execution of a puzzle of thousands of pieces. Imagine a picture of a famous person, if we can just put a piece every day would be much more useful to start by the middle, and continue filling his nose upward spiral, very soon we ‘d know who he is. That is, all the pieces are the same size but not the same importance , because a piece of heaven not give us helpful information. Prioritizing is essential to assimilate important.  This leads us to ask: What not to study? Why ask this? Because useless data may dilute the useful information and at the end we are left with nothing. The traditional system gives a lot of information but much of it is not retained.


To this day I do not know anyone who has to learn to swim instructor heard how it is done. The same thing happens languages, practice from day 1 is fundamental. The student should not be sculptor sculpture but, do and see results motivate us to follow. If we have to wait for years to be able to do so when that day comes we are so unmotivated that we may have left earlier. Wait demotivating.

To feel a little closer to our goal another key that I consider fundamental is to quantify the information we handle . If we visualize our goal as a ladder and every achievement as a stepping stone we know at all times where in the way we are. We will be aware of what we have come and really know how much longer to reach the top.

Each rung of this ladder I named Belt. In the Belt 1 (first level method) the results will be many in relation to the effort, let us go higher the more work to be done, and that is where everyone decides the degree of depth with which wants to enter the language.

All, without exception, will know to speak the language , in this case Chinese, I assure you . If you do not believe me check it out for yourselves. I am convinced that you will like the experience.

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A journalist follows the seven days diet and this is the result

There are diets and diets. Some bad, some not so bad and there ‘s even some good ones . It all depends, above all, where out that diet. Normally, if doctors with appropriate titles, at least we make sure they are legit. Anutritionist is the right person to set a standard to follow in terms of food is concerned. Studies each case and suited to the person. And so he began the challenge of this journalist who wanted to be in the skin of a model for seven days, when the way of eating is concerned.

Hallie Gould wanted to know what it was the diet that follows one of the models of the moment, Bella Hadid . To carry out was to visit his nutritionist, the Dr. Charles Passler , well known in the industry for treating many cases of models and, apparently, it helps change the lives of its customers for good.

In the consultation, the reporter was surprised because the doctor did not care that her favorite food was pizza and meatballs. What interested him most about it is the sentimental aspect, if he had had a bad relationship … Apparently this can create trauma and affect food.

After the visit began the week of detox , detox with which he tried to check what they do to stay fit models. The first day was hard, and ended up eating pasta at night. But he pulled his willpower and noticing that it felt good decided to make the remaining days he had committed, seven, although recommended for good results are 21.

The result was very satisfactory. “I felt better and healthier than he had felt in a long time. I lost about three kilos in total but gained a lot ofperspective. It was very difficult (I love junk food), but turn away for a while indulgences forced me to realize that I do not need them . ”

So we have an objective sign of a journalist who wanted to live for seven days with the diet of a model adapted to your case, of course. And it looks like it will try to maintain because it has been shown that feels better andnot need as much junk food as you thought . According says in his old school new body review blog, diet is not just steamed vegetables and a tablespoon of olive oil (although that’s part of it). Long – term plans are to get welfare, but someday small … As the same Bella Hadid showed in his Instagram account.

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The best war movies of history

War stories are a constant in the film since its inception. The gender war has left us some of the most memorable films ever.

Iwo Jima Memorial in Arlington, Virginia.
Iwo Jima Memorial in Arlington, Virginia. Getty Images

War stories are a constant in the cinema almost since its inception. The gender war has left us some of the most memorable films of all time. Worldwide, epics, raw or pacifists have been brought to the big screen. In the US case, the machinery of Hollywood has never stopped producing films that tell the wars waged by his soldiers.

Therefore, in this Veterans Day, we make our own list of the best war movies from Free Movies Online  … where US troops involved “except in the first two, but they are so necessary that we could not leave them out:

All Quiet on the Western Front (Quiet on the Western Front), 1930

It is the first anti-war film. Starts with the enthusiasm of young people who want ready to go forward and defend their country “Germany” in the First World War, but that the harsh reality of war is undermining.They pass from idealism to disillusionment. “We live in the trenches and fight. We try not to kill us, that’s all, “says the main character. He won two Oscars: Best Director and Best Picture.

Paths of Glory (Paths of Glory), 1957

Stanley Kubrick masterpiece based on the novel by Humphrey Cobb published in 1935 that it was possible to film at the insistence of Kirk Douglas, the protagonist of the film dessert.

Although the US Army does not appear in it, we have included because it is considered by many the best war film history, although it is anti-war, a controversial cry “in his moment against the meaninglessness that can become war .

Count the suicide attack the French army against the Germans on the hill of ants in 1916, during World War II. Given the failure of the mission, General Mireau decides that three soldiers randomly selected will be accused of cowardice and shot.

The Bridge on the River Kwai (The Bridge on the River Kwai), 1957

The most famous film history whistle. David Lean went to Alec Guinness and William Holden in the adaptation of the novel by Pierre Boulle which includes the construction of a railway bridge in Burma during World War II. The Japanese, who control the area, order their British and American prisoners to work in construction, key to transport supplies the Japanese Army. Prisoners proudly raise the bridge, but the ultimate goal can not be other than fly through the air. The film won seven Oscars and -the Colonel bogey march melody is a classic film history.

The Great Escape (The Great Escape), 1963

The most famous evasion film history was directed by John Sturges, starring Steve McQueen “and his famous glove baseball-, James Garner and Richard Attenborough, and has the original attempts to escape of Allied prisoners of war in a German camp maximum security during World War II. they are experts in other escapes, but this time they want to achieve the most memorable, one of 250 soldiers at the same time.

Patton , 1970

US General George Patton’s was one of the great figures of the Second World War. This film describes his flamboyant and charismatic personality and has his exploits. George C. Scott won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of the general, but rejected the prize. It is famous the opening speech of the film.

Torah! Torah! Tora! , 1970

“The day that changed the course of history,” “the attack on the base at Pearl Harbor in 1941” was reproduced meticulously showing the two visions, American and Japanese, in this film directed by Richard Fleischer, Kinji Fukasaku and Toshio Masuda. The name comes from the expression “Tora, tora, tora”, the code used by the Japanese to announce the success of the surprise attack, after which the United States officially entered World War II.

MASH , 1970

Robert Altman showed us the war from a different view and practically invented a new genre, the comedy war. MASH stands for Mobile Army Surgical Hospital and precisely the film tells the hilarious adventures of a field hospital in front of the Korean War.

Acidic, satiric and dark moments, MASH was starring Donald Sutherland, Tom Skerritt and Elliott Gould.Robert Duvall also appears. And above all, MASH resulted in one of the most successful series of all time in the United States aired from 1972 to 1983 and even today their television broadcasts can be seen on television networks around the world.

Full Metal Jacket (Born to Kill / face war / Metal Jacket), 1987

Stanley Kubrick directed this controversial film about the training of US Marines and their involvement in the Vietnam War. The two main characters, Joker (Matthew Modine) and Pyle (Vincent D’Onofrio) suffer the excesses of his instructor on the first part of the film until tragedy strikes. In the second, as in Vietnam, the war takes Joker to the darkest part of the human condition.

Apocalypse Now , 1979

Vietnam Francis Ford Coppola served as a pretext to adapt the magnificent novel by Joseph Conrad “Heart of Darkness” which is actually the outrages in colonial Africa in the late nineteenth century. Apocalypse Now is more than a war movie, it is an exercise of introspection in the darkest of human beings, represented by the unforgettable Colonel Kurtz Marlon Brando, hidden in the jungle with his own army, which must find and kill the captain Willard (Martin Sheen). He won two Oscars, for Best Cinematography and Best Sound, and earned six nominations.

Platoon (Platoon), 1986

The director of Platoon, Oliver Stone, is a veteran of the own Vietnam War, where he was wounded twice and he devoted a trilogy that started with the Platoon own, starring Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe and Charlie Sheen. The film shows the atrocities against civilians may even commit a war. As the trailer says: “The first real casualty of a war is innocence.” He won four Oscars.

Born on the Fourth of July (Born July 4), 1989

Oliver Stone repeated the theme of Vietnam, but this time through the eyes of a war veteran paralyzed from the waist down. Starring Tom Cruise, the film shows the personal change of a young man who goes to war convinced of his ideals and back begins to question the values ​​and politics that led him to Vietnam. He won two Oscars, including Best Director for second Stone.

The Thin Red Line (The Thin Red Line), 1998

The history of US military troops in the Battle of Guadalcanal against the Japanese during World War II served as the director Terrence Malick to build one of the most ambitious war films, with an ensemble cast that includes names such as Sean Penn, Adrien Brody, James Caviezel, George Clooney, John Cusack, Woody Harrelson, Jared Leto, Nick Nolte, John C. Reilly, John Travolta, and John Savage, and alternating the violence of war with the beauty of the landscape and the peace of local residents, outside the conflict.He earned seven Oscar nominations, but won none.

Saving Private Ryan (Saving Private Ryan), 1998

Steven Spielberg directed the great epic war in recent decades that also starts with perhaps the best scene of battle of all time: the graphic and realistic assault on Omaha Beach during the Normandy landings during the Second World War.

The story mission of Captain John H. Miller (Tom Hanks) and seven men in search of a paratrooper Private James Francis Ryan (Matt Damon), who has lost three brothers in combat. The script is based on the true story of eight children who died in the Civil War.

Saving Private Ryan he was nominated for eleven Academy Awards and won for Best Cinematography, Best Sound Mixing, Best Sound Editing, Best Editing and Best Director for Spielberg.

Flags of Our Fathers , 2006

An image can change the perspective of a conflict influencing public opinion. This happened with the photograph of American soldiers raising the flag on a hill in Iwo Jima, taken by Joe Rosenthal during World War II. This episode and its subsequent use advertising are the center of this film directed by Clint Eastwood who led this project in parallel with another film on the same episode, but told from the Japanese side: Letters from Iwo Jima.

The Hurt Locker , 2008

The latest movie from our list portrays the activities of a panel EOD off charge of explosives during the Iraq War and led by the impetuous Sergeant William James (Jeremy Renner). He won six Oscars, including Best Picture and Best Director for Kathryn Bigelow, although some veterans of the Iraq War described it as implausible.

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10 movies about the apocalypse

The end of the world about (according to some exaggerated), so we leave you today with 10 films that could guide you and / or finish scare. You can easily find these films at putlocker.

“Melancholia” (Lars von Trier, 2011)

The film is the story of two sisters, both with existential problems. The framework is the future impact on the planet “Melancholia” with the earth and thus the possible end of time.

“Take Shelter” (Jeff Nichols, 2011)

psychological drama that transports the viewer into the mind of the main character, who sees and dreams of an apocalyptic storm. constantly on the verge of dementia instability. Jeff Nichols masterpiece starring Michael Shannon and Jessica Chastain-the reconocida- today.

“The Road” (John Hillcoat, 2009)

A family must survive in a post apocalyptic world and our protagonist, played by Viggo Mortensen, will struggle with their doubts and fears to achieve the impossible. So real and plausible as it could be.

“The Happening” (M. Night Shyamalan, 2008)

The silent apocalypse, death is in the air and no one understands, the premise is running.Starring Mark Wahlberg and Zooey Deschanel indie queen.

“Children of Men” (Alfonso Cuarón, 2006)

Adaptation of the PD James novel, which shows a world where children stopped being born.Starring Clive Owen, this embodies the man responsible for transporting and protecting the last pregnant woman only hope for the perpetuity of mankind.

“War of the Worlds” (Steven Spielberg, 2005)

Spielberg produces love and hate, but his version of “War of the Worlds” by HG Wells is particularly striking, focusing on family unity as the first and last refuge.

“28 Days Later” (Danny Boyle, 2002)

This tape at the spearhead of modern films about “zombie apocalypse”. Behind her are sequels and even their own versions of “I’m Legend” (personal opinion).

“Independence Day” (Roland Emmerich, 1996)

Emmerich is an avowed fan of the stories that retell possible end to mankind. “Independence Day” is his most awarded, with “tape Godzilla” (although you may not believe), advertising story -and used USA- for others like “The Day After Tomorrow” , “2012” and now soon “White House Down” .

“Twelve Monkeys” (Terry Gilliam, 1995)

A virus wreaks havoc on Earth, it is the year 2035 and the survivors are hiding in underground shelters. James Cole (Bruce Willis), will be responsible for travel to the past to change history and face the “12 Monkeys”, the culprit radical group spread.

“Offret” (Andrei Tarkovsky, 1986)

In the anteroom of “3rd World War”, Alexander must face their worst fears. With his family and a couple of quirky characters will have to analyze a last option to save the world. It is a movie to watch with patience and full coffee at hand, masterpiece of the genre.

BONUS: “Dr. Strangelove “(Stanley Kubrick, 1964)

War comedy written and directed by Don Stanley Kubrick. “Red Phone ?, Dr. Strangelove” is a reflection of a bipolarized and tense waiting for the 3rd world war world. The film parodies the drama and leaves us one of the most iconic images of cinema (if you have not seen it yet, see it).

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All about the Oscars 2016

‘Spotlight’ achieved the statuette for best film and DiCaprio, best actor. So we have told you.

Spotlight award for best film at the 88th edition of the Oscars was. Earlier, the born – again put the theater Dolby standing with major awards: best director forAlejandro Gonzalez Inarritu – his second consecutive and best actor for Leonardo DiCaprio . Mad Max: Road Rage won six technical awards. If you still have not watched the ceremony, you can watch movies online free anytime on movie4k.

‘Spolight’ the surprise the Oscar for best film

The Oscars had a final fireworks. Spotlight , best film. Everything pointed to Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu, who has made ​​history by winning his second consecutive Oscar for best director for The reborn .

Rock laughs at everyone and calls for “more opportunities” for blacks

The presenter of the Oscar harshly attacked both the Academy for its racism as the front who asked boycotting the gala

The Oscars, in pictures

A ceremony in which The reborn ( The Revenant ), the Mexican Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu, are favorites with 12 nominations.

The winners of the Oscars 2016

Spotlight and Leonardo DiCaprio star in the list of winners of the Oscars.

Rock laughs at everyone and calls for “more opportunities” for blacks

The presenter of the Oscar harshly attacked both the Academy for its racism as the front who asked boycotting the gala

The stars shine on the red carpet at the Oscars

The Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles dresses for the 88th edition of the Academy Awards in Hollywood. A review of the best styles of nominees

Leonardo DiCaprio, and you have

The actor finally won his long-awaited Oscar after four unsuccessful nominations

¿You chose to sleep to see the Oscars? This is what happened in 25 phrases

You have rested and pluck week to stop. One problem: did not see the gala film. There remedy these phrases are read anything and everything you learn

The highlights of the 2016 Oscar

From the acceptance speech of Leonardo DiCaprio’s performance to Lady Gaga

Iñárritu: Mexican conquering Hollywood Trump times

Latin American creator, obsessed with the passage of time, approaches the legend with the second consecutive Oscar

Some Solomonic Oscar

‘Spotlight’ is a sordid true story deserved to be told. I miss some pride award for ‘Carol’ Haynes

Leonardo DiCaprio, you have the Oscar

The actor finally won his coveted prize after four unsuccessful nominations

The triple (well resolved) somersault Oscar

Hollywood can close the discussion of ethnic minorities with one of the finery

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The “brain Viagra” is already sold in many countries and raises many questions

It is a vitamin supplement that ensures increase the power of concentration and intelligence. According to experts from intelimaxiq, there is no such cognitive improvement.

The controversial "brain Viagra" is already sold in the country and raises many questions

Internet is often fertile ground for the sale of any type of drug. Websites selling dubious full color magical promises of improvements in jars and boxes of drugs and / or dietary supplements that solve almost all the problems of human beings. In the last hours, various portals commented the start of sales in Argentina of Focus X , a vitamin supplement, popularly known as “the brain Viagra” . These pills are presented as stimulants areas of information processing and long – term memory, appropriated Argentine Time .

As seen in advertising, the product is composed of natural and organic elements : soy and fish, stearate vegetable magnesium, calcium silicate, silicon, gelatin dioxide extract eleuthero, alpha lipoic acid, vitamins B12, B6 and E. in addition, it is stated that “once you start using this amazing product see how they improve mental functions of your brain” .

Between announced benefits include: increased memorizing power and concentration ,improving intelligence and at the same time, protection of cells and brain membranes, neutralization of cognitive impairment, the increased growth factor receptor nerve and loss prevention fibers and nerve cells caused by aging.

According to one of the official product pages, l as pills began to sell in the city of Rosario, Santa Fe . In this regard, a source from the National Administration of Medicines, Food and Medical Technology (ANMAT) said that, in case of an imported product should appear registered in the administration and is not. In the case of a product manufactured domestically, competition bromatología corresponds to the province in which it occurs .

In one of the sites that advertise Focus X, it ensures that from “testing more than 2000 individuals, the Institute of Neuroscience at the University of Miami, USA, revealed that increases brain activity related to memory 138 %, and related to logical thinking by 85 percent “ . In addition, it is clarified that “participants were taken IQ tests (CI) before and after taking the pill, and saw an increase of 42 points in IQ (the national average is 86). That means that most people can increase their IQ by nearly 50 percent. ” To measure the performance of participants will be conducted several tests of logic, memory and logical thinking. Of the participants who took Focus X, ensure the site that 97% had an increase in their performance. Most reported feeling relaxed, concentrates and comfortable during the test battery that lasted up to six hours.

Arguing that the substances contained in the supplement are 100% natural and were used individually without evidence for adverse effects centuries ensures that none of the patients showed side effects. However, on the website that sells the product ensures that being “a powerful supplement, the manufacturer recommends not exceed the daily dose of one pill a day” . The danger of nootropics.

The false promises that haunt the virtual world also present when market more dangerous drugs such as so -called “smart drugs” (nootropics), which became a craze among students and workers with night and long shifts, like doctors, nurses and pilots, and those with demanding jobs as stockbrokers, mainly in the United States.

These drugs do not produce, as they say, a multiplication in neural connections. If they can help keep people in the waking state, increasing the alert level. Among the nootropics are chemical compounds of the family of the racetamos such as piracetam or pramiracetam- and substances such as vitamins or amino acids, which are found in many foods and plants, andare used to attentional deficits as modafinil and Ritalin and other drugs used to treat patients with diseases such as dementia or Alzheimer’s .

They can cause adverse effects, such as character disorders or sleep. These risks increase exponentially when consumption is done by outside medical prescription. According to experts, many of the people who are attracted by these promises may have his personality greater tendency to abuse of psychoactive drugs, sometimes in a context of high demand and competitiveness. The writer without limits.

The American film Limitless, released in 2011 and starring actor Bradley Cooper, tells the story of a writer who accepts consume an experimental drug that allows him to use 100% of his brain and go from being an unmotivated person to a successful with great powers of concentration and a high IQ.

However, the film shows that tool that looked like a perfect and functional dream to his intellectual task, gradually becomes a weapon of self destruction.

The tablet consumed by the character of Bradley is far from being a vitamin supplement as it is marketed as the “Viagra of the brain” and is related more with drugs called nootropics, a sort of “alarm” in real life they can keep a person alert, but does not affect intelligence.

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The military training comes to the gym with Crossfit

The military training , it is known, is one of the strongest in the world, especially by a particular characteristic, which is related in a direct way with full that is, if we consider that includes some very different practices each other and can mention for example push – ups, lift weights, climb a rope and jump.

It is for this reason that those people all the time trying to innovate in some of themost exclusive gyms in the world have chosen this time to harness and develop a new workout called CrossFit fit shop, which speak at some point, and now has finished spreading across the globe.

The first thing to note about this type of training is that it is not developed for an ordinary person who usually work a little twice a week in the gym, as indeed it is based on the practices making the Police United States and Marine corps, so no machines or fixed routines, or anything like it.

Of course, when we started classes CrossFit, especially if we have a site that has been specially prepared for them, we can see some really strange tools such as those for training Olympic athletes, private training gym NYChigh – performance athletes or members Army, all recycled, with some as wheel tractor, maces, thick and heavy ropes, tensioners , and others.

In any case, the best of CrossFit, we can infer us to see and people who practice itfrom my own experience, is all that is training of high intensity , which helps shape the body, but burning a huge many calories in even short sessions of a half or an hour .

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